Bhakti List Archives. I read your mail and was very much curious to find out more about this subject and questioned my thirutthagappanar Shri Venkatapathy swamy. Following is his explanation based on what he has learnt from great scholars, accompanied by my flavors and opinions: First of all, according to me, one should keep in mind whom they are talking about before making a statement like "Sri Ramanujacharya did not have access to Bodhayana's work in it's original form and quotes like, from Ramanuja's commentary on first sUtra: " One should remember they are talking about the great Shri Bhashyakarar who is one amongst those handful who attempted to write a Bharshyam for the Brahmasutras and succeed in giving a convicing explanation thus supporting popular philosophies. Hence, if he has used a word, he would definitely mean something and it is more appropriate to find out what Shri Bhasyakarar meant by that word, from his followers. But, looks like, the person who made those statements had attempted to interpret the same on his own.
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Continued from Part One. Bodhayana the Vrttikara. It is also said that his commentary on Brahma Sutra Brahma—sutra Vrtti , in particular, was quite detailed. Bodhayana is regarded amongst the early commentator on Brahma Sutra; and one who came to be recognized as an authority by generations of commentators that followed him.
His commentary profoundly influenced the followers of his doctrine. All the works ascribed to Bodhayana are dispersed and are lost; and, none is available now. It seems that fragments of his Brahma Sutra Vritti were extant till about the 11 th century. But, his commentaries on Mimamsa Sutra were lost much earlier; and , had passed out of existence by the time of Kumarila Bhatta Ca.
The text ascribed to Bodhayana had the reputation of being the most authoritative explanation of the Brahma Sutras, based in a philosophy of theism, which was also the way Sri Ramanuja understood the Upanishads. But, the work of Bodhayana was not available anywhere in South India. It seems that even Sri Yamunacharya the predecessor of Ramanuja had not seen a copy of Bodhayana Vrtti.
But, the route taken by Sri Ramanuja and his disciples was much circuitous. It was finally located in the State Library. But, the Library authorities allowed him to read it within the premises of the Library; and, they did not permit him to take the fragmented old text out of the Library.
And, Sri Ramanuja based his commentary of Brahma Sutra Sri Bhashya on the explanations given in that abridged version. The words of the Sutra will be explained sutraksarani vyakhyasyante in accordance with their views and traditions tan-mata-anusarena. Bhagavad Bhodayana kritam vistirnam Brahma-sutra — vrttim purvacharyah samskipuh I tan-mata-anusarena sutraksarani vyakhyasyante II. Apart from the excerpts quoted by Sri Ramanuja nothing else of Bodhayana Vrtti is extant today.
The Bodhayana Vrtti or what has remained of it, is traditionally respected by the followers of Sri Ramanuja. And, their tradition regards Bodhayana as second only to the author of Brahma Sutra Badarayana. As regards the Purva-charyas , the elders of his tradition, who are said to have abridged purvacharyah samskipuh the detailed commentary on Brahma sutra which had been composed by Bhagavad Bodhayana Bhagavad Bhodayana kritam vistirnam Brahma-sutra — vrttim , we do not know exactly who they were.
But, in another context Sri Ramanuja mentions the Purva-charyas of his tradition. It is not clear whether the two sets of Purva-charyas were the same or were different. In his Vedartha-samgraha , 93 Sri Ramanuja mentions the names of six teachers of Vedanta who are said to have expounded the philosophy akin to Vishishta-advaita: 1. Bodhayana; 2. Tanka; 3. Dramida; 4.
Guhadeva; 5. Kapardi; and, 6. Bhagavad Bodhayana- Tanaka- Dramida- Guhadeva- Kapardi — Baruchi — prabhrty- avigita-sista- parigrahita-puratana — Veda-Vedanta- vyakhyana-suvyaktar-thasrutinikaranidarshito-yam- panthah I.
This path is declared in many Srutis, whose meaning has been made very clear by the ancient commentators on Veda and Vedanta, accepted by Masters such as Bhagavad Bodhayana- Tanaka- Dramida- Guhadeva- Kapardi — Baruchi, who have never advocated heretical teachings. Sri Ramanuja acknowledges these six teachers as ancient authorities whose views are acceptable to him. And, in particular, he quotes quite often from the works ascribed to Tanaka and Dramida.
After mentioning that his own explanations of the Brahma Sutras would be in accordance with the interpretations provided by these ancient teachers, Sri Ramanuja commences his Sri Bhashya with the discussion on the first Sutra of the Brahma Sutra: Atato Brahma jignasaha. Thereafter, the words of the Sutra are taken up, one after the other, for examination of their context, meaning and grammar. He then gives the Vakyartha of the Sutra, the meaning that is conveyed by the Sutra as a whole.
And, then he delves into the philosophical interpretations of the Sutras in accordance with the views of these ancient teachers of his tradition. But, very little is known about these ancient seers. And, sadly, their works too have not survived. Though their names are recited by Sri Yamuna and Sri Ramanuja we do not know the Acharya-paramapara between these Masters named as Purva-charyas. He is usually referred to with the epithet Vakyakara , the author. Tanaka, well versed in the field of Vedanta, is said to have written commentaries on both the Chandogya Upanishad and the Brahma-sutras.
All his works are lost. But his sayings are quoted by the later scholars. At the beginning of his commentary Sribhashya on the Brahma Sutra, Sri Ramanuja explains meditation Dhyana taught in the Upanishads as an un-interrupted continuous stream of thought or remembrance Smrti like a stream of poured out oil. Then he quotes the Vakyakara Tanaka :. Knowledge Vedana which is the means to release is worship Upasana.
When carrying out the Upasana, the object of meditation should be Brahman with attributes, endowed with many virtues. In order to complete the Prajna based meditation, cleansing of the body and mind is necessary.
For this, seven types of preparations are prescribed. The meditation on Brahman, with these preparations, the attainment of emancipation is made possible. And, he goes on to say that the worship should be continuous. Hence, Tanaka emphasized the union of knowledge and action, which later came to be known as: Jnana-karma-samucchaya-vada.
He was opposed to the notion of instantaneous enlightenment. Sri Ramanuja states that Tanaka puts forth Parinama-vada and explains the phenomenal world arising out of Brahman like Dadhi coagulated milk from milk.
Brahman is the Atman of all and everything is pervaded by Brahman; That which exists in the space within the heart, the golden person seen in the eye and so on which are discussed in the Upanishads refer to Brahman. Its essence is pure consciousness Prajna.
It is eternal and has a form which is beyond the senses; yet, it resides in everything and controls the desires of all the deities and beings. Thus, Tanaka, it seems, held that each of the individual selves corresponds to the body of Brahman. Dravida also Dramida is respectfully referred to as Dramidacharya, the Bhashyakara or Bhashyakrt , the commentator par excellence.
His views are often cited by Sri Ramanuja in Sribhashya and in Vedarthasamgraha. Dravida is said to have written a commentary on Brahma Sutra as also commentaries on Chandogya Upanishad and Mandukya Upanishad. Dravida was later than Tanaka, as Dramida is said to have written a Bhashya on the Vakyas of Tanaka Brahmanandi — virachitam vakyanam sutra-rupanam bhashyakarta Dravidacharyo api. Sri Sankara also cites Dravida as an authority at the beginning of his commentary on Chandogya Upanishad 3.
It is said; Dravida explained Brahman as the absolute principle, creator of the universe Visva-srj ; as the Supreme Divinity Para-devata having internal attributes Antarguna ; and, as Lord of the world Lokeshvara who creates the phenomenal world and regulates all the worlds.
Dravida did not seem to make a distinction between Brahman and Isvara. The theistic doctrine of liberation is presented on the basis of relation between the Lord and the individual self. According to Dravida the Highest Self and individual self belong to the same genus Jati just as the sparks coming out of the fire but are not identical. The individual self purified from all taints by performing meditation is liberated by the grace of the Lord; and then attains union with the Lord.
The liberation according to Dravida is that the individual self residing in peace with the Highest Self; and that is granted by the grace of the Lord. And, while it is with the Lord, the individual self still retains its identity as before. Though it is in union with the Highest Self, it does not possess the powers of creation, sustenance and dissolution. On this point Tanaka and Dravida are one; and it is close to the doctrine of Sri Ramanuja. Bharuchi Baruchi said to be an ancient scholar on Vedanta.
Traditionally, he is placed before Dramidacharya. He is said to have held the view that Samkhya and Yoga as two systems that complement each other. Bharuchi, it seems, also advocated combination of knowledge Jnana and action Karma - Jnana-karma-samucchaya.
Sri Ramanuja held Bharuchi in high esteem; but, does not explicitly quote any of his views. Bharuchi is also recognized as an author or a commentator on Dharmasatra. He is said to have written a commentary on certain chapters first four chapters, parts of chapter 5 and verses of later chapters of Manusmrti.
He is also credited with commentary on Vishnudharmasutra. One of his quotations also occurs in the commentary composed on the Apastamba Grhyasutra by Sudarshana Suri, a teacher of Visishtadvaita Vedanta. However, none of his works on Vedanta has survived. According to that:. Bharuchi says: in all the stages of life, combination of knowledge and action is to be known as the means of attaining Brahmaloka.
Bharuchi supports the Samkhya doctrine of duality of Purusha and Pradhana. However, Bharuchi believes in the duality of souls and matter in the effected world. Guhadeva and Kapardin were said to be ancient Vedanta teachers and authors. The two were referred to by Sri Ramanuja as Sista — wise and erudite. But, nothing much is known these scholars; and Sri Ramanuja does not also seem to quote from their works. E; and, to whom the commentaries on the Apastamba-shrautasutra and the Taittiraya-aranyaka are attributed.
Kapardin is a peculiar name. It does not seem to be the proper name of the person. It is a descriptive term. Rudra is often addressed as Kapardin E. And, it seems during the Vedic times some men and women sported braids or plaits of hair. For instance; a woman having four plaits of hair was called Chatush-kapardin ; and, the Vasithas wearing their hair in a plait on the right side were known as Dakshinatas — kaparda.
It is also said; a certain Kapardin Ca. Some surmise that the name of the strip along the west coast — Konkan, may have derived from Kapardika.
Re: Self Intro & a question about Bodhayanavritti
Continued from Part One. Bodhayana the Vrttikara. It is also said that his commentary on Brahma Sutra Brahma—sutra Vrtti , in particular, was quite detailed. Bodhayana is regarded amongst the early commentator on Brahma Sutra; and one who came to be recognized as an authority by generations of commentators that followed him. His commentary profoundly influenced the followers of his doctrine.
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