Some of Valentino Braitenberg's most well-known work centers on thought experiments with what he calls "vehicles. Each experiment details a vehicle that has a small set of sensors, and how those sensors can be connected to the vehicle's motors in ways that mirror the neurological connections in living creatures. The resulting vehicles seem to be capable of complex behaviors like fear, aggression, love, free will, etc. In his work, Braitenberg describes what he calls the Law of Uphill Analysis and Downhill Invention: "It is much more difficult to guess the internal structure of an entity just by observing its behavior than it is to actually create the structure that leads to that behavior. In this lab, you will program your robot to emulate five of Braitenberg's vehicles, using the light sensors as the "small set of sensors" Braitenberg describes. You will begin with the most basic vehicle, Alive.
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Braitenberg vehicles are a widely used model of animal behaviour in robotics and Artificial Life. This paper presents the first comprehensive and formal analysis of the behaviour of Braitenberg vehicles 2 and 3. After a review of their intuitive behaviour we present their models as dynamical systems, that under circularly symmetric stimuli can be simplified and analysed using the phase plot technique. We prove that intuitive understanding is not enough to determine the potential behaviour of vehicles 2b and 3a and, under certain circumstances, they could behave as vehicles 2a and 3b respectively.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Braitenberg, V. Experiments in synthetic psycology. Resnik, M. In: Artificial Life. Travers, M. Fraenkel, G. Kineses, taxes and compass reactions. Dover Publications Google Scholar. Boeddeker, N. Arechavaleta, G. In: Doncieux, S. SAB LNCS, vol. Lilienthal, A. Bicho, E. Yang, X. Webb, B. Mautner, C. Salomon, R. Smart Eng. Kaplan, D. Springer Google Scholar. Personalised recommendations. Cite paper How to cite?
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Lab 5: Braitenberg Vehicles
Introduction When looking at mechanisms with cognitive functionality and artificial intelligence in general it is useful to begin with the simplest cases. And yet we know very well that there is nothing in these vehicles that we have not put in ourselves. The speed of the motor rectangular box at the tail end is controlled by a sensor half circle on a stalk, at the front end. Motion is always forward, in the direction of the arrow, except for perturbations. Vehicle 2a: fear pp.
A Braitenberg vehicle is a concept conceived in a thought experiment by the Italian - Austrian cyberneticist Valentino Braitenberg. The book models the animal world in a minimalistic and constructive way, from simple reactive behaviours like phototaxis through the simplest vehicles, to the formation of concepts, spatial behaviour, and generation of ideas. For the simplest vehicles, the motion of the vehicle is directly controlled by some sensors for example photo cells. Yet the resulting behaviour may appear complex or even intelligent.
Not for the amusement: science fiction in the service of science. Or just science, if your agree that fiction is a part of it, always was, and always will be as long as our brains are only minuscule fragments of the universe, much too small to hold all the facts of the world, but not too idle to speculate about them. Valentino Braitenberg. This project aims to simulate some primitive robots which are given the name "Braitenberg Vehicles" , after first being stated in Vehicles: Experiments in Synthetic Psycology. Before giving information about the simulator and the project, it is better to have some idea about the book and its enthralling author, Valentino Braitenberg.