This is a list of Hijri years Latin : anno Hegirae or AH with the corresponding common era years where applicable. In principle, each Islamic month begins with sighting of the new crescent moon after a New Moon at sunset. Because of this, the calendar is dependent on observational conditions and cannot be predicted or reconstructed with certainty, but tabular calendars are in use which determine the dates algorithmically. Because of this, dates may vary by up to two days between traditions or countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.
|Published (Last):||16 June 2013|
|PDF File Size:||8.16 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||18.28 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the Hajj. The civil calendar of almost all countries where the religion is predominantly Muslim is the Gregorian calendar , with Syriac month-names used in the Levant and Mesopotamia Iraq , Syria , Jordan , Lebanon and Palestine.
Notable exceptions to this rule are Iran and Afghanistan, which use the Solar Hijri calendar. Rents, wages and similar regular commitments are generally paid by the civil calendar. For central Arabia, especially Mecca , there is a lack of epigraphical evidence but details are found in the writings of Muslim authors of the Abbasid era. Inscriptions of the ancient South Arabian calendars reveal the use of a number of local calendars. At least some of these South Arabian calendars followed the lunisolar system.
Both al-Biruni and al-Mas'udi suggest that the ancient Arabs used the same month names as the Muslims, though they also record other month names used by the pre-Islamic Arabs. This interpretation is supported by Arab historians and lexicographers, like Ibn Hisham , Ibn Manzur , and the corpus of Qur'anic exegesis. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed.
Others concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but suggest that about years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant.
This interpretation was first proposed by the medieval Muslim astrologer and astronomer Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi , and later by al-Biruni ,   al-Mas'udi , and some western scholars. The Arabs, according to one explanation mentioned by Abu Ma'shar, learned of this type of intercalation from the Jews.
Al-Biruni also says this did not happen,  and the festivals were kept within their season by intercalation every second or third year of a month between Dhu al-Hijjah and Muharram. If, on the other hand, the names relate to the intercalated rather than the fixed calendar, the second intercalation might be, for example, of a month between Muharram and Safar allowing for the first intercalation, and the third intercalation of a month between Safar and Rabi'I allowing for the two preceding intercalations, and so on.
There are two big drawbacks of such a system, which would explain why it is not known ever to have been used anywhere in the world. First, it cannot be regulated by means of a cycle the only cycles known in antiquity were the octaeteris 3 intercalations in 8 years and the enneadecaeteris 7 intercalations in 19 years.
Secondly, without a cycle it is difficult to establish from the number of the year a if it is intercalary and b if it is intercalary, where exactly in the year the intercalation is located. Although some scholars see list above claim that the holy months were shuffled about for convenience without the use of intercalation, there is no documentary record of the festivals of any of the holy months being observed in any month other than those they are now observed in. The Qu'ran sura 9. If they were shuffled as suggested, one would expect there to be a prohibition against "anticipation" as well.
If the festivities of the sacred months were kept in season by moving them into later months, they would move through the whole twelve months in only 33 years. Had this happened, at least one writer would have mentioned it. Sura 9. Such adjustment can only be effected by intercalation. There are a number of indications that the intercalated calendar was similar to the Jewish calendar, whose year began in the spring.
Military campaigns clustered round Ramadan, when the summer heat had dissipated, and all fighting was forbidden during Rajab, at the height of summer. The invasion of Tabak in Rajab AH 9 was hampered by "too much hot weather" and "drought". Rabi'I is the third month and if it coincided with the third month of the Jewish calendar the festival would have been the Feast of Weeks , which is observed on the 6th and 7th days of that month.
The number of the months, with God, is twelve in the Book of God, the day that He created the heavens and the earth; four of them are sacred. That is the right religion. So wrong not each other during them. And fight the unbelievers totally even as they fight you totally and know that God is with the godfearing. Know that intercalation nasi is an addition to disbelief. Those who disbelieve are led to error thereby, making it lawful in one year and forbidden in another in order to adjust the number of the months made sacred by God and make the sacred ones permissible.
The evil of their course appears pleasing to them. But God gives no guidance to those who disbelieve. One year they authorise the Nasi', another year they forbid it. They observe the divine precept with respect to the number of the sacred months, but in fact they profane that which God has declared to be inviolable, and sanctify that which God has declared to be profane.
Assuredly time, in its revolution, has returned to such as it was at the creation of the heavens and the earth. In the eyes of God the number of the months is twelve. Among these twelve months four are sacred, namely, Rajab, which stands alone, and three others which are consecutive. The three successive sacred forbidden months mentioned by Prophet Muhammad months in which battles are forbidden are Dhu al-Qa'dah , Dhu al-Hijjah , and Muharram , months 11, 12, and 1 respectively.
The single forbidden month is Rajab , month 7. These months were considered forbidden both within the new Islamic calendar and within the old pagan Meccan calendar. The Christian liturgical day, kept in monasteries, begins with vespers see vesper , which is evening, in line with the other Abrahamic traditions. Christian and planetary weekdays begin at the following midnight. Thus "gathering day" is often regarded as the weekly day off. This is frequently made official, with many Muslim countries adopting Friday and Saturday e.
A few others e. The cycle repeats every 33 lunar years. Each month of the Islamic calendar commences on the birth of the new lunar cycle. Traditionally this is based on actual observation of the moon's crescent hilal marking the end of the previous lunar cycle and hence the previous month, thereby beginning the new month. Consequently, each month can have 29 or 30 days depending on the visibility of the moon, astronomical positioning of the earth and weather conditions.
However, certain sects and groups, most notably Bohras Muslims namely Alavis , Dawoodis and Sulaymanis and Shia Ismaili Muslims, use a tabular Islamic calendar see section below in which odd-numbered months have thirty days and also the twelfth month in a leap year and even months have According to numerous Hadiths , 'Ramadan' is one of the names of God in Islam , and as such it is prohibited to say only "Ramadan" in reference to the calendar month and that it is necessary to say the "month of Ramadan", as reported in Sunni ,        Shia       and Zaydi  Hadiths.
In pre-Islamic Arabia, it was customary to identify a year after a major event which took place in it. Thus, according to Islamic tradition, Abraha , governor of Yemen, then a province of the Christian Kingdom of Aksum Ethiopia , attempted to destroy the Kaaba with an army which included several elephants.
The raid was unsuccessful, but that year became known as the Year of the Elephant , during which Muhammad was born sura al-Fil. This report convinced Umar of the need to introduce an era for Muslims. After debating the issue with his counsellors, he decided that the first year should be the year of Muhammad's arrival at Medina known as Yathrib, before Muhammad's arrival.
Uthman ibn Affan then suggested that the months begin with Muharram, in line with the established custom of the Arabs at that time. The years of the Islamic calendar thus began with the month of Muharram in the year of Muhammad's arrival at the city of Medina, even though the actual emigration took place in Safar and Rabi' I of the intercalated calendar, two months before the commencement of Muharram in the new fixed calendar.
F A Shamsi postulated that the Arabic calendar was never intercalated. According to him, the first day of the first month of the new fixed Islamic calendar 1 Muharram AH 1 was no different from what was observed at the time. This Julian date 16 July was determined by medieval Muslim astronomers by projecting back in time their own tabular Islamic calendar , which had alternating and day months in each lunar year plus eleven leap days every 30 years.
Due to the Islamic calendar's reliance on certain variable methods of observation to determine its month-start-dates, these dates sometimes vary slightly from the month-start-dates of the astronomical lunar calendar , which are based directly on astronomical calculations.
Still, the Islamic calendar seldom varies by more than three days from the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, and roughly approximates it. Both the Islamic calendar and the astronomical-lunar-calendar take no account of the solar year in their calculations, and thus both of these strictly lunar based calendar systems have no ability to reckon the timing of the four seasons of the year. In the astronomical-lunar-calendar system, a year of 12 lunar months is In this calendar system, lunar months begin precisely at the time of the monthly "conjunction", when the Moon is located most directly between the Earth and the Sun.
The month is defined as the average duration of a revolution of the Moon around the Earth By convention, months of 30 days and 29 days succeed each other, adding up over two successive months to 59 full days. This leaves only a small monthly variation of 44 minutes to account for, which adds up to a total of 24 hours i. To settle accounts, it is sufficient to add one day every three years to the lunar calendar, in the same way that one adds one day to the Gregorian calendar every four years.
The Islamic calendar, however, is based on a different set of conventions being used for the determination of the month-start-dates. Traditionally, the first day of each month is the day beginning at sunset of the first sighting of the hilal crescent moon shortly after sunset. If the hilal is not observed immediately after the 29th day of a month either because clouds block its view or because the western sky is still too bright when the moon sets , then the day that begins at that sunset is the 30th.
Such a sighting has to be made by one or more trustworthy men testifying before a committee of Muslim leaders. Determining the most likely day that the hilal could be observed was a motivation for Muslim interest in astronomy, which put Islam in the forefront of that science for many centuries.
Still, due to the fact that both lunar reckoning systems are ultimately based on the lunar cycle itself, both systems still do roughly correspond to one another, never being more than three days out of synchronisation with one another. This traditional practice for the determination of the start-date of the month is still followed in the overwhelming majority of Muslim countries.
Each Islamic state proceeds with its own monthly observation of the new moon or, failing that, awaits the completion of 30 days before declaring the beginning of a new month on its territory. But, the lunar crescent becomes visible only some 17 hours after the conjunction, and only subject to the existence of a number of favourable conditions relative to weather, time, geographic location, as well as various astronomical parameters.
Due to the interplay of all these factors, the beginning of each month differs from one Muslim country to another, during the 48 hour period following the conjunction. The information provided by the calendar in any country does not extend beyond the current month. A number of Muslim countries try to overcome some of these difficulties by applying different astronomy-related rules to determine the beginning of months.
Thus, Malaysia , Indonesia , and a few others begin each month at sunset on the first day that the moon sets after the sun moonset after sunset. In Egypt, the month begins at sunset on the first day that the moon sets at least five minutes after the sun. A detailed analysis of the available data shows, however, that there are major discrepancies between what countries say they do on this subject, and what they actually do.
In some instances, what a country says it does is impossible. Due to the somewhat variable nature of the Islamic calendar, in most Muslim countries, the Islamic calendar is used primarily for religious purposes, while the Solar-based Gregorian calendar is still used primarily for matters of commerce and agriculture. If the Islamic calendar were prepared using astronomical calculations, Muslims throughout the Muslim world could use it to meet all their needs, the way they use the Gregorian calendar today.
But, there are divergent views on whether it is licit to do so. A majority of theologians oppose the use of calculations beyond the constraint that each month must be not less than 29 nor more than 30 days on the grounds that the latter would not conform with Muhammad's recommendation to observe the new moon of Ramadan and Shawal in order to determine the beginning of these months. However, some jurists see no contradiction between Muhammad's teachings and the use of calculations to determine the beginnings of lunar months.
Thus the jurists Ahmad Muhammad Shakir and Yusuf al-Qaradawi both endorsed the use of calculations to determine the beginning of all months of the Islamic calendar, in and respectively.
The major Muslim associations of France also announced in that they would henceforth use a calendar based on astronomical calculations, taking into account the criteria of the possibility of crescent sighting in any place on Earth. This resulted in a division of the Muslim community of France, with some members following the new rule, and others following the Saudi announcement.
Islamic (Hijri) Calendar Year 2011 CE
Islamic (Hijri) Calendar Year 2011 M