CATTELL THEORY OF FLUID AND CRYSTALLIZED INTELLIGENCE PDF

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The Gf-Gc theory of cognitive abilities is a psychometric theory of intelligence based on intelligence and ability tests.

The theory was first formulated in terms of fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities by Raymond Cattell in The theory posits its fundamental assumption, that intelligence or rather, human cognitive abilities is not a unitary construct but entails the lifelong coordination of at least two classes of abilities: fluid Gf , which refers to the ability of understanding relationships among the components of an abstract problem and using such relationships to solve the problem, and crystallized Gc , which refers to the knowledge accumulated through experiences.

Two particular aspects of this hypothesis, which set it apart from previous ones, are its structural and its kinematic predictions. Structural evidence in favor of the Gf-Gc hypothesis comes from many studies showing that by relying on factor-analytic methods it is possible to demonstrate that a single factor of intelligence, called g , does not describe the relations among broad cognitive abilities, representing primary-level abilities, as well as models with multiple factors.

Kinematic predictions come from studies that analyze age gradients or, more directly, age changes in cognitive performance. These studies conclude that while during childhood both classes of abilities increase, starting in young adulthood fluid abilities decrease, while crystallized abilities remain constant or may even increase.

A third set of prediction is dynamic in nature, and is captured especially by the investment theory, which postulates that during childhood fluid abilities are necessary to accumulate crystallized ones. In practice, it is certainly not simple to measure the two broadest abilities in adults; with respect to Gc abilities, because of the influence of experience, interest, motivation, professional skills, and years since schooling on which most general Gc tests are based, like vocabulary ; and as for Gf abilities, especially in older adults, processing speed generally decreases during adulthood, and most Gf tasks are timed, which leads to confounds between the two classes of cognitive tasks.

Opponents of the theory have pointed out that in practice Gf is highly collinear with a general factor of intelligence g , while Gc abilities further contribute little in terms of individual differences in cognitive performance. In , the psychologist Raymond B. Cattell b. Cattell lists forty-four existing intelligence tests, which cover various domains, such as written and oral verbal, nonverbal, and perceptual abilities. However, Cattell also points out that such tests are neither standardized nor published, while the majority were conceived for college students hence are probably not generalizable to a wider population.

In the end, he notes a dearth of intelligence tests for adults of a general population. Cattell also observes that the heterogeneity of the tests stems from different theoretical perspectives on intelligence, but also from a variety of methodologies employed to validate such tests.

Within this historical context, Cattell outlines the foundations of the hypothesis of fluid and crystallized ability Gf-Gc. While this hypothesis somewhat resembles a number of other then-current propositions about intellectual human abilities, such as Intelligence A and Intelligence B Hebb , power intelligence and speed intelligence Lorge , and the distinction between energy and engines of intellect Spearman , Cattell points out the salient differences that warrant the originality of his Gf-Gc hypothesis.

Nevertheless, as affirmed by Cattell p. Brown, Richard E. Hebb and Cattell: The genesis of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 10 December. DOI: Cattell, R. Some theoretical issues in adult intelligence testing. Psychological Bulletin However, the abstract does not contain that nomenclature. This presentation was later elaborated upon to become the influential paper Cattell Cattell, Raymond B. The measurement of adult intelligence.

Psychological Bulletin — This is the seminal paper most often cited as the first written account of the Gf-Gc theory of intelligence by Cattell. This paper was in progress in , and portions of it were presented in Cattell Hebb, Donald O. Clinical evidence concerning the nature of normal adult test performance.

According to evidence reported in Brown , during this conference Hebb first presents his hypothesis of Intelligence A and B, which is later elaborated upon and renamed by Cattell as Gf and Gc. The effect of early and late brain injury upon test scores, and the nature of normal adult intelligence. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society The author proposes a hypothesis about intelligence in normal i.

The hypothesis posits that in any performance of intellectual ability, two factors are involved: the power of reasoning Intelligence A and skill Intelligence B , which is largely due to experience.

Cattell was strongly inspired by this hypothesis. Kent, Phillip. Fluid intelligence: A brief history. Applied Neuropsychology: Child 6. Provides a historical overview of the origins of the Gf-Gc theory of cognitive abilities, with several citations by Cattell and Horn to exemplify their perspective.

Furthermore, it examines the neuropsychological and neurological components of fluid intelligence, which, according to Kent, remain unclear. Lorge, I. The influence of the test upon the nature of mental decline as a function of age. Journal of Educational Psychology The author administered eleven rather different intelligence tests to adults aged twenty to over seventy years. Spearman, Charles. The abilities of man: Their nature and measurement.

London: MacMillan. In this seminal book, Spearman outlines the work he and his students carried out for twenty-three years on the nature of intelligence. Many scholars only remember the former g component.

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Historical Context In , the psychologist Raymond B. How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions. Jump to Other Articles:. Women, Psychology of Work Well-Being. Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Powered by: PubFactory.

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Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence

When you think about intelligence , what sort of things comes to mind? Intelligence is more than simply the accumulation of facts. It also encompasses the ability to learn new things. Psychologists have different definitions that they use to identify the various ways that we gain and use information. When you think of intelligence, you might think of having a lot of knowledge about different subjects. But you also might consider quick thinking and the ability to reason. Such factors represent what psychologists refer to as fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

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Two Types of Intelligence: Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

The Gf-Gc theory of cognitive abilities is a psychometric theory of intelligence based on intelligence and ability tests. The theory was first formulated in terms of fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities by Raymond Cattell in The theory posits its fundamental assumption, that intelligence or rather, human cognitive abilities is not a unitary construct but entails the lifelong coordination of at least two classes of abilities: fluid Gf , which refers to the ability of understanding relationships among the components of an abstract problem and using such relationships to solve the problem, and crystallized Gc , which refers to the knowledge accumulated through experiences. Two particular aspects of this hypothesis, which set it apart from previous ones, are its structural and its kinematic predictions. Structural evidence in favor of the Gf-Gc hypothesis comes from many studies showing that by relying on factor-analytic methods it is possible to demonstrate that a single factor of intelligence, called g , does not describe the relations among broad cognitive abilities, representing primary-level abilities, as well as models with multiple factors. Kinematic predictions come from studies that analyze age gradients or, more directly, age changes in cognitive performance. These studies conclude that while during childhood both classes of abilities increase, starting in young adulthood fluid abilities decrease, while crystallized abilities remain constant or may even increase.

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Fluid Versus Crystallized Intelligence: What’s the Difference?

According to the theory published in by the psychologist Raymond Cattell , [1] [2] [3] general intelligence g is subdivided into fluid intelligence g f and crystallized intelligence g c. Fluid intelligence is the ability to solve novel reasoning problems and is correlated with a number of important skills such as comprehension, problem solving, and learning. Fluid intelligence depends on working memory capacity, [6] which is localized in the prefrontal cortex. Fluid and crystallized intelligence are constructs originally identified as elements of a theory developed by Raymond Cattell. Some researchers have linked the theory of fluid and crystallized abilities to Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Crystallized ability and Piaget's treatment of everyday learning reflect the impress of experience.

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Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in , or This paper describes Hebb's two types of intelligence, and shows how Cattell used them to develop his ideas of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Hebb and Cattell exchanged a number of letters before Cattell's paper was rewritten in such a way that everyone was satisfied. This paper examines the work of Hebb and Cattell on intelligence, their correspondence, the development of the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence, and why Cattell , p.

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