EUROPEAN SOUSLIK PDF

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European sousliks inhabit open landscapes. They prefer to live in prairies and steppes, rocky country, open woodlands, abandoned farms, and desert mountain ranges Nowak, They avoid wet areas, the banks of permanent waters, or any type of wet areas created by accumulated water. Parker, They are not found in areas with a dense forest cover Nowak, The European souslik has a slender but strong body. The legs are relatively short; the forelegs and hind legs are about the same length Parker, The back is yellow-gray and densily covered by whitish-yellow speckles or dots.

The dots disappear on the sides of the body, and the belly is yellow. The chin and the throat are white. The European souslik has short and smooth body hair which becomes straighter and stiffer in winter Parker, The external ears of the European souslik are flat. The forehead is broad and flat, causing the large eyes to be far apart.

The cheek pouches are rather small. The tail is short, measuring about 3. The gestation period of the European souslik is days. European sousliks mate only once a year, producing youngs per birth. The offspring are born naked; the eyes and the ears are still closed. The weaning period is about 30 days, and the males hardly participate in the weaning of a litter. European sousliks reach sexual maturity in 1 year Parker, European sousliks are active during the day.

They dig and live in lodges of two types. One is the permanent den, in which they spend nights or the entire winter. The other is a temporary, protective hole which serves as a refuge or for a short rest Parker, European sousliks hibernate. Before hibernating, they clog up the entrance to the lodge with soil and build a tunnel that extends to near the surface and contains a chamber, but no nesting material.

After waking up from hibernation, sousliks either open up the clogged tunnel or dig themselves out from the side tunnel directly to the surface Parker, The old males start to hibernate in the first half of August while the adult females continue to remain outside until the first half of September.

European souslik are rarely seen outdoors as late as November Parker, European sousliks bring food into the lodge for consumption, and they provide food for the young.

However, they never store any supplies for the winter Parker, European sousliks are solitary in their burrows; however, they are colonial in the sense that they build their burrows close together. This helps in protecting them from predators Caspers, The European souslik feeds primarily on vegetation, nuts, seeds, and grains; however, individuals may also consume small invertebrates, small vertebrates, and birds'eggs Emanoil, ; Nowak, The European souslik has been declining rapidly in Europe because of the destruction of habitat through intensification of agriculture and large-scale reallotment of land.

The species may now be extinct in some area. European sousliks are protected in Hungary and Poland. However, throughout this range, edge populations are steadily decreasing Emanoil, Although European sousliks are disappearing in Europe, they are still common in other countries Parker, The European souslik is also known as plain squirrel because its inconspicuous coloration makes its silhouette blend with the surroundings.

Spermophilus citellus is sometimes known as Citellus citellus. In otherwords, Europe and Asia and northern Africa. Animals with bilateral symmetry have dorsal and ventral sides, as well as anterior and posterior ends. Synapomorphy of the Bilateria. Endothermy is a synapomorphy of the Mammalia, although it may have arisen in a now extinct synapsid ancestor; the fossil record does not distinguish these possibilities.

Convergent in birds. This terrestrial biome includes summits of high mountains, either without vegetation or covered by low, tundra-like vegetation. A terrestrial biome. Savannas are grasslands with scattered individual trees that do not form a closed canopy. Extensive savannas are found in parts of subtropical and tropical Africa and South America, and in Australia. A grassland with scattered trees or scattered clumps of trees, a type of community intermediate between grassland and forest.

See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome. Vegetation is made up mostly of grasses, the height and species diversity of which depend largely on the amount of moisture available. Fire and grazing are important in the long-term maintenance of grasslands. Caspers, T. Emanoil, M. Encyclopedia of Endangered Species. Gale Research Inc. Newey, S. Nowak, R. Walker's Mammals of the World.

Fifth Edition. Parker, S. Grzimek's Encyclopedia of Mammals. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. To cite this page: Yu, H.

Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control.

Spermophilus citellus European ground squirrel Facebook. Terrestrial Biomes savanna or grassland mountains Physical Description The European souslik has a slender but strong body. Other Physical Features endothermic bilateral symmetry Average mass g 7. Key Behaviors motile Communication and Perception Perception Channels tactile chemical Food Habits The European souslik feeds primarily on vegetation, nuts, seeds, and grains; however, individuals may also consume small invertebrates, small vertebrates, and birds'eggs Emanoil, ; Nowak, Conservation Status The European souslik has been declining rapidly in Europe because of the destruction of habitat through intensification of agriculture and large-scale reallotment of land.

Glossary Palearctic living in the northern part of the Old World. Read more Connect with us Help us improve the site by taking our survey. Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Classification Kingdom Animalia animals Animalia: information 1 Animalia: pictures Animalia: specimens Animalia: sounds Animalia: maps Chordata: information 1 Chordata: pictures Chordata: specimens Chordata: sounds Vertebrata: information 1 Vertebrata: pictures Vertebrata: specimens Vertebrata: sounds Mammalia: information 1 Mammalia: pictures Mammalia: specimens Mammalia: sounds Rodentia: information 1 Rodentia: pictures Rodentia: specimens Rodentia: sounds 2.

Sciuridae: information 1 Sciuridae: pictures Sciuridae: specimens 69 Sciuridae: sounds 1. Spermophilus: pictures 67 Spermophilus: specimens Spermophilus citellus: information 1 Spermophilus citellus: pictures 1. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support.

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The European souslik Spermophilus citellus is endemic to Europe. Its populations became increasingly fragmented and are facing serious declines across most of its range throughout last decades. The European souslik is endemic to Europe. It is undoubtedly an important natural element of the steppic grassland ecosystem. In the short grass steppe habitat the species represents one of the main prey for several top predators listed in Annex I of the Birds Directive, such as the Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca , Lesser Spotted Eagle Aquila pomarina , Saker Falcon Falco cherrug etc. In some habitats it might be also an important consumer of primary production able to limit spreading of some plant species, including invasive plants, such as the Silver-leaved Nightshade Solanum elaeagnifolium.

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European ground squirrel

The European ground squirrel Spermophilus citellus , also known as the European souslik , is a species from the squirrel family, Sciuridae. Like all squirrels, it is a member of the rodent order. It is a diurnal animal, living in colonies of individual burrows in pastures or grassy embankments. The squirrels emerge during the day to feed upon seeds , plant shoots and roots or flightless invertebrates. The colonies maintain sentinels who whistle at the sight of a predator, bringing the pack scurrying back to safety. Breeding takes place in early summer when a single litter of five to eight young is borne. The European ground squirrel hibernates between autumn and March, the length of time depending on the climate.

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European sousliks inhabit open landscapes. They prefer to live in prairies and steppes, rocky country, open woodlands, abandoned farms, and desert mountain ranges Nowak, They avoid wet areas, the banks of permanent waters, or any type of wet areas created by accumulated water. Parker, They are not found in areas with a dense forest cover Nowak, The European souslik has a slender but strong body. The legs are relatively short; the forelegs and hind legs are about the same length Parker,

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European Souslik

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