Aldous Leonard Huxley was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. He spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from until his death in Best known for his novels and wide-ranging output of essays, he also published short stories, poetry, travel writing, and film stories and scripts. Through his novels and essays Huxley functioned as an examiner and sometimes critic of social mores, norms and ideals. Huxley was a humanist but was also interested towards the end of his life in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism.

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It has an area of , sq. Geography And Statistics The kingdom of Hungary Magyarbiradolorn is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic a little less than loo m.

Its land-frontiers are for the most part well defined by natural boundaries: on the N. On the W. From the last-mentioned river are derived the terms Cisleithania and Transleithania, applied to Austria and Hungary respectively.

The kingdom of Hungary in its widest extent, or the " Realm of the Crown of St Stephen," comprises Hungary proper Magyarorszdg , with which is included the former grand principality of Transylvania, and the province of Croatia-Slavonia. This province enjoys to a large extent autonomy, granted by the so-called compromise of The town and district of Fiume, though united with Hungary proper in respect of administration, possess a larger measure of autonomy than the other cities endowed with municipal rights.

Of the total area of the kingdom Hungary proper has , sq. In the present article the kingdom is treated mainly as a whole, especially as regards statistics. In some respects Hungary proper has been particularly dealt with, while special information regarding the other regions will be found under Croatia-Slavonia, Transylvania and Fiume.

Orographically Hungary is composed of an extensive central plain surrounded by high mountains. These mountains belong to the Carpathians and the Alps, which are separated by the valley of the Danube.

But by far the greater portion of the Hungarian highlands belongs to the Carpathian mountains, which begin, to the north, on the left bank of the Danube at Deveny near Pressburg Pozsony , run in a north-easterly and easterly direction, sway round south-eastward and then westward in a vast irregular semicircle, and end near Orsova at the Iron Gates of the Danube, where they meet the Balkan mountains.

The greatest elevations are in the Tatra mountains of the north of Hungary proper, in the east and south of Transylvania the Transylvanian Alps and in the eastern portion of the Banat. The highest peak, the Gerlsdorf or Spitze or Gerlachfalva, situated in the Tatra group, has an altitude of ft. The portion of Hungary situated on the right bank of the Danube is filled by the Alpine system, namely, the eastern outlying groups of the Alps. These groups are the Leitha mountains, the Styrian highlands, the Lower Hungarian highlands, which are a continuation of the former, and the Bakony Forest.

The Bakony Forest, which lies entirely within Hungarian territory, extend to the Danube in the neighbourhood of Budapest, the highest peak being KOroshegy ft. The south-western portion of this range is specially called Bakony Forest, while the ramifications to the north-east are known as the Vertes group ft. The province of Croatia-Slavonia belongs mostly to the Karst region, and is traversed by the Dinaric Alps.

The mountain systems enclose two extensive plains, the smaller of which, called the " Little Hungarian Alfdld " or " Pressburg Basin," covers an area of about sq. The Pest Basin extends over the greater portion of central and southern Hungary, and is traversed by the Theiss Tisza and its numerous tributaries. This immense tract of low land, though in some, parts covered with barren wastes of sand, alternating with marshes, presents in general a very rich and productive soil.

The monotonous aspect of the Alfdld is in summer time varied by the deli-bdb, or Fata Morgana. The Aggtelek or Baradla cave, in the county of Gomor, is one of the largest in the world. In it various fossil mammalian remains have been found. The Fonacza cave, in the county of Bihar, has also yielded fossils.

No less remarkable are the Okno, Vodi and Demenyfalva caverns in the county of Lipt6, the Veterani in the Banat and the ice cave at Dobsina in Gomor county. Of the many interesting caverns in Transylvania the most remarkable are the sulphurous Biidos in the county of Haromszek, the Almas to the south of Udvarhely and the brook-traversed rocky caverns of Csetate-Boli, Pestere and Ponor in the southern mountains of Hunyad county.

The greater part of Hungary is well provided with both rivers and springs, but some trachytic and limestone mountainous districts show a marked deficiency in this respect.

The Matra group, e. A relative scarcity in running waters prevails in the whole region between the Danube and the Drave. The greatest proportionate deficiency, however, is observable in the arenaceous region between the Danube and Theiss, where for the most part only periodical floods occur. But in the north and east of the kingdom rivers are numerous.

Owing to its orographical configuration the river system of Hungary presents several characteristic features. The second is the direction of the rivers, which converge towards the middle of the country, and are collected either mediately or immediately by the Danube.

Another characteristic feature is the uneven distribution of the navigable rivers, of which Upper Hungary and Transylvania are almost completely devoid. But even the navigable rivers, owing to the direction of their course, are not available as a means of external communication. The only river communication with foreign countries is furnished by the Danube, on the one hand towards Austria and Germany, and on the other towards the Black Sea, All the rivers belong to the watershed of the Danube, with the exception of the Poprad in the north, which as an affluent of the Dunajec flows into the Vistula, and of a few small streams near the Adriatic.

The Danube enters Hungary through the narrow defile called the Porta Hungarica at Deveny near Pressburg, and after a course of '. Where it enters Hungary the Danube is ft. It forms several large islands, as the Great Schutt, called in Hungarian Czallokdz or the deceiving island, with an area of nearly sq.

The principal tributaries of the Danube in Hungary, of which some are amongst the largest rivers in Europe, are, on the right, the Raab, Drave and Save, and, on the left, the Waag, Neutra, Gran, Eipel, Theiss the principal affluent, which receives numerous tributaries , Temes and Cserna.

The total length of the river system of Hungary is about m. The Danube is navigable for steamers throughout the whole of its course in Hungary. Regulating works have been undertaken to ward off the dangers of periodical inundations, which occur in the valley of the Danube and of the other great rivers, as the Theiss, the Drave and the Save.

Hungary is poorly supplied with canals. They are constructed not only as navigable waterways, but also to relieve the rivers from periodical overflow, and to drain the marshy districts. It is about 70 m. The Versecz and the Berzava canal, which are connected with one another, drain the numerous marshes of the Banat, including the Alibunar marsh. The Berzava canal ends in the river Temes. The Berettyo canal between the Koros and the Berettyo rivers, and the Kdrds canal along the White Kiirds were constructed in conjunction with the regulation of the Theiss, and for the drainage of the marshy region.

Hungary has two large lakes, Balaton q. It is so shallow that it completely evaporated in , but has filled again since , at the same time changing its configuration. It lies in the marshy district known as the Hansag, through which it is in communication with the Danube. In the neighbourhood of this lake are very good vineyards. Several other small lakes are found in the Hansag. The other lowland lakes, as, for instance, the Palics near Szabadka, and the Velencze in the county of Feller, are much smaller.

In the deep hollows. The vegetation around them contains plants characteristic of the sea shores. The largest of these lakes is the Feller TO situated to the north of Szeged. As already mentioned large tracts of land on the banks of the principal rivers are occupied by marshes.

Besides the Hansag, the other principal marshes are the Sari-et, which covers a considerable portion of the counties of Jasz-Kun-Szolnok, Bekes and Bihar; the Escedi Lap in the county of Szatmar; the Szernye near Munkacs, and the Alibunar in the county of Torontal. Since the last half of the 19th century many thousands of acres have been reclaimed for agricultural purposes.

The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain. The great Hungarian plain is covered by Tertiary and Quaternary deposits, through which rise the Bakony-wald and the Mecsek ridge near Pecs Funfkirchen.

These are composed chiefly of Triassic beds, but Jurassic and Cretaceous beds take some share in their formation. Amongst the most interesting features of the Bakony-wald are the volcanic and the igneous rocks. The great plain itself is covered for the most part by loess and alluvium, but near its borders the Tertiary deposits rise to the surface. Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.

Five subdivisions may be recognised in the Miocene deposits, corresponding with five different stages in the evolution of southern Europe.

The first is the First Mediterranean stage of E. Suess, during which the Hungarian plain was covered by the sea, and the deposits were purely marine. The next is the Schlier, a peculiar blue-grey clay, widely spread over southern Europe, and contains extensive deposits of salt and gypsum. During the formation of the Schlier the plain was covered by an inland sea or series of salt lakes, in which evaporation led to the concentration and finally to the deposition of the salts contained in the water.

Towards the close of this period great earth movements took place and the gap between the Alps and the Carpathians was formed. The third period is represented by the Second Mediterranean stage of Suess,, during which the sea again entered the Hungarian plain and formed true marine deposits. This was followed by the Sarmatian period, when Hungary was covered by extensive lagoons, the fauna being partly marine and partly brackish water.

Finally, in the Pontian period, the lagoons became gradually less and less salt, and the deposits are characterized especially by the abundance of shells. Hungary has a continental climate cold in winter, hot in summer - but owing to the physical configuration of the country it varies considerably.

If Transylvania be excepted, three separate zones are roughly 'distinguishable: the " highland," comprising the counties in the vicinity of the Northern and Eastern Carpathians, where the winters are very severe and continue for half the year; the " intermediate " zone, embracing the country stretching northwards from the Drave and Mur, with the Little Hungarian Plain, and the region of the Upper Alfold, extending from Budapest to Nyiregyhaza and Sarospatak; and the " great lowland " zone, including the main portion of the Great Hungarian Plain, and the region of the lower Danube, where the heat during the summer months is almost tropical.

In Transylvania the climate bears the extreme characteristics peculiar to mountainous countries interspersed with valleys; whilst the climate of the districts bordering on the Adriatic is modified by the neighbourhood of the sea. The minimum of the temperature is attained in January and the maximum in July. The rainfall in Hungary, except in the mountainous regions, is small in comparison with that of Austria. In these regions the greatest fall is during the summer, though in some years the autumn showers are heavier.

Hail storms are of frequent occurrence in the Carpathians. On the plains rain rarely falls during the heats of summer; and the showers though violent are generally of short duration, whilst the moisture is quickly evaporated owing to the aridity of the atmosphere.

The vast sandy wastes mainly contribute to the dryness of the winds on the Great Hungarian Alfold. Occasionally, the whole country suffers much from drought; but disastrous floods not unfrequently occur, particularly in the spring, when the beds of the rivers are inadequate to contain the increased volume of water caused by the rapid melting of the snows on the Carpathians.

On the whole Hungary is a healthy country, excepting in the marshy tracts, where intermittent fever and diphtheria sometimes occur with great virulence. Feet Mean Temperature Rainfall Stations. The wild animals are bears, wolves, foxes, lynxes, wild cats, badgers, otters, martens, stoats and weasels.

Among the rodents there are hares, marmots, beavers, squirrels, rats and mice, the last in enormous swarms. Of the larger game the chamois and deer are specially noticeable. Among the birds are the vulture, eagle, falcon, buzzard, kite, lark, nightingale, heron, stork and bustard. Domestic and wild fowl are generally abundant.

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William S. Burroughs: Naked Lunch pages Language: Hungarian Naked Lunch is one of the most important novels of the twentieth century. Exerting its influence on the work of He traces


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Get this from a library! In this film I tried to capture moments, small details or special. Audible Download Audio Books. John is rendered here more mentally stable and exhibits none of the religious fervor for guilt and self flagellation.


Brave New World is a dystopian novel by British author Aldous Huxley , written in and published in Largely set in a futuristic World State , whose citizens are environmentally engineered into an intelligence-based social hierarchy , the novel anticipates huge scientific advancements in reproductive technology , sleep-learning , psychological manipulation and classical conditioning that are combined to make a dystopian society which is challenged by only a single individual: the story's protagonist. Huxley followed this book with a reassessment in essay form, Brave New World Revisited , and with his final novel, Island , the utopian counterpart. In , the Modern Library ranked Brave New World at number 5 on its list of the best English-language novels of the 20th century. O wonder! How many goodly creatures are there here! How beauteous mankind is!


It has an area of , sq. Geography And Statistics The kingdom of Hungary Magyarbiradolorn is one of the two states which constitute the monarchy of Austria-Hungary, and occupies Hungary, unlike Austria, presents a remarkable geographical unity. It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic a little less than loo m.

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