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Latest Popular Top Rated Trending. Electrical Edition. Browsing All 98 Articles Latest Live. Mark channel Not-Safe-For-Work? Are you the publisher? Claim or contact us about this channel. Conversion from binary code to gray code and gray code to binary code. In this post let us see conversion from binary code to gray code and gray code to binary code. Purpose for converting binary code to gray code?
Gray code has occupied a prominent role now-a-days because of its special characteristics. It is, there is change in only one bit for two successive values.
This gray code is widely used for error correction in digital communications. Let us consider an example to clearly understand the conversion from binary code to gray code. Let the representation of this binary code in gray code be g3 g2 g1 g0. Step 2: Now the second most significant bit i. If addition produces any carry ignore the carry.
Carry is produced when we add two 1's i. Step 3: The third most significant bit of gray code i. If any carry is generated ignore it. Step 4: The above process is continued until the least significant bit LSB of gray code is obtained.
This least significant bit LSB of gray code is obtained by adding last most significant bit and the least significant bit of binary code. If any carry is produced that has to be neglected. Let the representation of this gray code in binary code be b3 b2 b1 b0. Step 3: The third most significant bit of binary code i. Step 4: The above process is continued until the least significant bit LSB of binary code is obtained.
This least significant bit LSB of binary code is obtained by adding last most significant bit of binary code and the least significant bit of gray code. Example can be represented diagrammatically as follows,. Today in this post we have learnt c onversion from binary code to gray code and gray code to binary code.
Operational amplifier as integrator and differentiator Operational amplifier which is called also called as op-amp has a key role in many electronic applications due to its special characteristics.
Name itself indicates that it can perform operations. By using op-amp we can perform different operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, differentiation and integration. Of these op-amp application as integrator and differentiator is very common. Before going to see op-amp as integrator and differentiator let us first understand working principle of operational amplifier. Let us see the symbol of operational amplifier and its terminals before going to see working of op-amp.
It has two input terminals one is marked negative and other as positive and one output terminal. The input terminal which is marked positive is called Non-inverting input because when we apply an input signal to this Non-inverting input there is no phase shift between input signal and amplified output signal. If we require a ground we need to provide ground separately as there is no common ground provided in op-amp. In this open loop operation we apply two input signals one at inverting input and other at Non-inverting input as shown in the figure.
The gain of open loop operation of op-amp is given by. Open loop gain is very high even a small signal given at input amplifies to large amount but its value will not exceed the supply voltage of op-amp as it obeys law of conservation of energy.
If we introduce a feed back in the circuit it is called closed loop operation. Here a part of output signal is fed back to one of the input terminals. The terminal where feed back is given two signals are present simultaneously one is feed back signal and the other is original applied signal it can be seen in the following diagram. If we apply feed back signal from output to non-inverting terminal it is called positive feed back which is used in oscillator circuits.
And if we apply feed back signal from output to inverting terminal it is called negative feedback here phase shift is present between applied signal and feed back signal. This negative feed back is used for amplifier circuits. Closed loop gain of op-amp is given by. As we have learnt operation of op-amp now we can clearly understand the application of op-amp as differentiator and integrator.
When an operational amplifier work as integrator we get output as integration of voltage with respect to time. Here we use capacitors at a right place in the circuit which helps to perform integration of applied input voltage.
The arrangement can be seen from the following diagram. The above circuit is called an ideal op-amp integrator circuit. Here the negative feed back is taken and a capacitor is connected between output terminal and inverting input terminal.
Because of negative feedback node X is at virtual ground and if the input voltage is 0 V then no current flows through input resistance Rin then the capacitor will remain uncharged. So we get output as 0 V.
If we apply a constant negative DC voltage at input then we get a linearly raising voltage at output. And this rate of change of output voltage will be directly proportional to input voltage.
According to virtual ground concept as non-inverting terminal is grounded then node X will also be at ground potential. For an ideal op-amp input impedance is high so input current is very less and the current flowing through resistor R1 also flows through capacitor C.
Now we equate both current equations as current flowing through resistance R1 input and capacitor C output are same since op-amp has high input impedance all current flows through capacitor.
We get,. C times the integration of input voltage. This shows that op-amp acts as an integrator by this circuit arrangement. Here R1. The phase shift is because we have applied signal to inverting terminal. We use integrator circuit to convert a square wave input to triangular wave output as shown in the following circuit. As discussed when we apply constant positive dc voltage we get a falling output voltage at linear rate and if we apply constant negative dc voltage we get a rising output voltage at linear rate if a step signal is integrated we get ramp signal.
An integrator op-amp circuit acts as low pass filter it attenuates high frequency signals. A differential op-amp has output voltage which is proportional to rate of change of input voltage. This op-amp can act as differentiator by keeping a capacitor in series with the input voltage source.
This can be seen from the diagram given below. The capacitor acts as open circuit for dc input. Here we ground the non-inverting terminal of op-amp and the inverting input terminal is connected to output through a feed back resistor Rf. This makes the circuit to behave as voltage follower. The input current to op-amp is very less due to high input impedance of op-amp we have same current through capacitor and resistor Rf.
Now we equate both equations as current through capacitor and resistor are same. The above equation clearly says that output voltage is - C. This shows that op-amp acts as adifferentiator by this circuit arrangement. Here if we give a square wave input to differentiator the output has to be zero since differentiation of constant is zero but we get negative and positive spikes because input signal takes time to change from 0 to Vm.
At constant positive DC input we get negative spike at output and at constant negative DC input we get positive spike at output. This can be seen from the following diagram. If we give a sin wave as input to differentiator we get cos wave as output.
This can be seen in the following diagram. In this post we have learnt op- amp as integrator and op-amp as differentiator. To download this post on operational amplifier as integrator and differentiator as PDF clik here. Searches related to Operational Amplifier as Integrator and Differentiator. So the usage of welding transformer has significant role in welding compared to a motor generator set. When we need to use a motor generator set for welding we need to run it continuously which produces a lot of noise.
With the help of welding transformer weld is done with a less noise. Now let us see in detail about welding transformer. It has a magnetic core with primary winding which is thin and has large number of turns on one arm. A secondary winding with less number of turns and high cross-sectional area on the other arm. Due to this type of windings in primary and secondary it behaves as step down transformer.
So we get less voltage and high current from the secondary winding output. This is the construction of ac welding transformer.
A dc welding transformer also has same type of winding the only difference is that we connect a rectifier which converts ac to dc at the secondary to get dc output. We also connect a inductor or filter to smooth the dc current. This will be construction of dc welding transformer. The diagrams are shown below.
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