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For its profoundly philosophical themes, the critic Antonio Candido described the book as a "metaphysical novel". It is often considered to be the Brazilian equivalent of James Joyce 's Ulysses.
He was self-taught in many areas and studied several languages from childhood, starting with French before he was seven years old. But all at a very basic level. And I think that studying the spirit and the mechanism of other languages helps greatly to more deeply understand the national language [of Brazil]. In general, however, I studied for pleasure, desire, distraction ".
Still a child, he moved to his grandparents' house in Belo Horizonte , where he finished primary school. In that same year, he graduated and began his medical practice in Itaguara , where he stayed for nearly two years.
Later on, he became a civil servant through examination. In , he went to Barbacena in the position of Doctor of the 9th Infantry Battalion.
Rosa later recalled that the experiences from his time as a doctor and a soldier were significant for his formation as a writer. In the following year, Rosa began his diplomatic career. In , he was chosen by unanimous vote to enter the Brazilian Academy of Letters Academia Brasileira de Letras in his second candidacy. After postponing his acceptance for four years, he finally assumed his position in , just three days before passing away in the city of Rio de Janeiro , victim of a heart attack , at the summit of his diplomatic and literary career.
In turn, Rosa began pursuing a literary career by inscribing a collection of twelve short-novels in a contest, in , whose jury was chaired by the then already prestigious Graciliano Ramos.
The older writer denied him the first prize. Ramos himself later explained his devaluation of the first drafts of a work later known as Sagarana: in spite of the author's talent and the many beauties of the collection, he thought that the uneven quality of the stories and their often exaggeratedly long passages resulted in a work that was incoherent and immature.
In its mature form, already noticeable in Sagarana , Rosa's style vastly differs from that of Ramos. The latter's succinct, dry expression is in harsh contrast with the former's exuberance of detail and quality of language, rich in vocabulary and adventurous in its exploration of the grammar of the Portuguese language , qualities the Ramos himself would endow as his fellow writer's greatest virtues.
The book is composed of nine short-novels, three less than the original version submitted to the contest eight years earlier. Rosa, however, would craft this outlaw manner of living to a type of existential condition according to which bravery and faith are the two driving forces of life. This is not, however, limited to the content of his stories. Rosa would sustain and develop these characteristics through his later work. Two old sertanejos rescue him and give him cares in their house; during his convalescence, a priest administers blessings to him and promises the violated man that all persons are intended to a particular and decisive moment of salvation.
Rosa later describes a scene where the explendour of nature is revealed to him through the bright colors of the flowers and the liberty of the birds.
Such policy of publication , although authorized by the author himself, breaks the original structure of the book, whose complexity is often remarked. The very name of the collection points to this fact: the "corps de ballet" it refers to are the conjunction of symbols and ideias that figure repeatedly across the seven short-novels, reappearing here and there in this or that manner in order to gain yet another level of meaning. This "dancing" of motifs and metaphors takes place inside and outside of the stories.
Among them, Rosa notably elects figures from astrology to compose and ordinate the plots and the relations between themselves, crafting a book-long sequence of a single meaning. Such progress is mimicked by the story Recado do Morro "Message from the Hills" , which, accordingly, occupied the middle of the book, being the fourth story in the original publication.
In the story, a group of five sertanejos is escorting a German naturalist in an expedition through the state of Minas Gerais. First heard from a hill by a madman who lives in the caves of the backlands, he recounts the message to his brother, an impoverished traveler, who, by his turns, tells the message to a child. Each time the message is told, its conveyors slightly alter its contents, until the poet ultimately gives it the form a mythical ballad, which he sings at a party attended by the expedition members.
Pedro, a handsome and viril man, is altogether hated for the relations he maintains with the wives of the other sertanejos. The men who he has fooled intended to have their revenge by letting him drunk and subsequently murdering him.
Rosa intervenes the descriptions of the landscapes found by the German man's expedition with the successive versions of the story that the madmen, the child and finally the poet retell. Riobaldo is anguished by the idea he may have conducted a pact with the Devil , although he is uncertain, and he often dismisses the superstitions and beliefs of the "sertanejos" as stupidities. The interpretation of this supposed pact vary widely. Antonio Candido viewed it as an act of self-assurance, a symbolic deed by which Riobaldo can take hold of himself and of all his potential, something which allows him to become a powerful warrior who can extend vastly the power of his gang and avenge the betrayal of Joca Ramiro.
All this is conducted by the motif of the star-crossed love affair. The matter of the Diadorim's identity is highly problematic. Her true gender is only revealed to Riobaldo after her death. This points to a frequent theme of Riobaldo's mussings: the inconstancy of things.
To her, the pact must be seen, in accordance with his perception, as an agreement with evil that results in great accomplishments and personal growth and a subsequent approximation towards God. Furthermore, the novel might be seen as an attempt of memory , and therefore his speech , to retrieve that which has been irrevocably lost and attach personal meaning to it.
Reality, therefore, becomes only a linguistic construction, made possible by the interaction of two persons. O homem humano. The human human-being. Very famous among these is A Terceira Margem do Rio lit. The story, addressing the themes peculiar to Rosa's oeuvre and told in first person from the point of view of an observer, recounts the absurd event of a man who decides to live inside a boat in the middle of a water stream, giving no explanation for his actions nor achieving, apparently, anything with it.
ISBN 13: 9788520932520
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Sagarana by Guimaraes Rosa Joao, Used
For its profoundly philosophical themes, the critic Antonio Candido described the book as a "metaphysical novel". It is often considered to be the Brazilian equivalent of James Joyce 's Ulysses. He was self-taught in many areas and studied several languages from childhood, starting with French before he was seven years old. But all at a very basic level. And I think that studying the spirit and the mechanism of other languages helps greatly to more deeply understand the national language [of Brazil]. In general, however, I studied for pleasure, desire, distraction ". Still a child, he moved to his grandparents' house in Belo Horizonte , where he finished primary school.
Important User Information: Remote access to EBSCO's databases is permitted to patrons of subscribing institutions accessing from remote locations for personal, non-commercial use. However, remote access to EBSCO's databases from non-subscribing institutions is not allowed if the purpose of the use is for commercial gain through cost reduction or avoidance for a non-subscribing institution. Source: Revista de Letras. Jan-jun, Vol. Two philosophical questions are addressed.