Cattell , Maurice Tatsuoka and Herbert Eber. The 16PF provides a measure of normal personality and can also be used by psychologists, and other mental health professionals, as a clinical instrument to help diagnose psychiatric disorders , and help with prognosis and therapy planning. Thus, the 16PF instrument provides clinicians with a normal-range measurement of anxiety , adjustment, emotional stability and behavioral problems. Clinicians can use 16PF results to identify effective strategies for establishing a working alliance, to develop a therapeutic plan, and to select effective therapeutic interventions or modes of treatment. Beginning in the s, Cattell used several techniques including the new statistical technique of common factor analysis applied to the English-language trait lexicon to elucidate the major underlying dimensions within the normal personality sphere. This method takes as its starting point the matrix of inter-correlations between these variables in an attempt to uncover the underlying source traits of human personality.

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Training Manual. Table of Contents. In Summary. Different Applications. A South African Perspective. Administration and Dissemination of Results. Interpretation of Results. Perhaps it befits the complexity of an instrument which has to measure the human mentality that it should have a definite infancy; between the first and the — Edition; a childhood between that and the — Edition and an adolescence terminating in the present Handbook.

The focus of the questionnaire is to assess normal personality characteristics and to serve as a complement to information provided by more clinical instruments like the MMPI. Through factor analysis he attempted to identify and formulate variables that could account for the diverse and complex nature of human behaviour.

Various formats of the questionnaire are available to address the needs of different circumstances. Purpose of Training. Cattell was born in in Staffordshire in England.

He then studied Psychology and in obtained a. Whilst working as a Research Assistant with Charles Spearman he developed an interest in Factor Analysis as a developing technique to analyse data. From to he lectured at the University College of Exeter and then became director of the Leicester Child Guidance Clinic where he stayed until In he was awarded a D.

He consequently did research in genetic psychology at Clark University and lectured between and in Psychology at Harvard University, Boston. During his lifetime Cattell published many articles and books and was awarded the prestigious Wenner- Gren Prize by the New York Academy of Science for his research on the psychology of personality.

Theoretical Foundation. The task he set himself was difficult because the ways in which human personality can be described are varied and systematisation there-of is very complex.

A source trait was perceived as an element or driving force that influences the way a person will tend to reflect this factor in behaviour. Research Approach. Cattell used a language analysis, done by Allport and Odbert in , as the basis for an operational assessment of behavioural trait elements.

Cattell and a colleague reduced this list to a more manageable number by combining synonyms and eliminating items that were unclear in their meaning. A set of about variables was then further reduced to 35 by applying informal cluster-analytic methods to a correlation matrix of peer ratings made by adults.

These 35 variables served as a basis for peer ratings on a sample of adults. Cattell then generated a pool of questionnaire items to represent factors he had obtained. His focus was on those factors that had shown the greatest replicability across three interpretive approaches followed,.

Twelve to fifteen factors were identified and Cattell named these according to the letters of the alphabet:. Factors A — O. Ultimately, Cattell took out some of the factors. Four factors, identified in the language analysis but which did not turn up in the factor analysis were perceived by Cattell as of importance in everyday life and were given equal ranking with the other factors of the questionnaire. They were named the Q-factors.

The above-identified both the A-O factors and the Q-factors factors were defined as first order factors. Based on subsequent research, three of the identified fifteen factors, namely D, J, and K, were found not to be replicable for adults and were subsequently left out in the further development of the questionnaire. Five major second-order factors in adults were identified in addition to the factor of intelligence.

Other second-order factors. These are extraversion, anxiety, cortertia, independence and sociopathy. Different source traits can result in behaviour which to an observer may seem the same, but the way in which each source trait has caused the observed behaviour, may be different. For example, one person in a group may want to impose his or her will on others, to influence others and thus be perceived as dominant.

Another person is perceived as dominant merely because he or she is more bold and unselfconscious and not because of a need to influence people. Different formats of the test have all remained true to the basic theory and principles which guided the development of the original questionnaire. These were:. Form A and Form B, as equivalent, with the aim of assessing literate members of the general public.

Each of these formats consisted of items and generally took 50 minutes to complete. Form C and Form D, as equivalent, with a focus on assessing less literate members of the general public. Words used were simpler and only items had to be answered. It generally took 30 to 40 minutes to complete. Form E and Form F, as equivalent. These formats had very easy to understand words and items and the focus was on general members of the public with a low level of education grades 6 — There were questions to be answered and it normally took between 30 to 40 minutes to complete.

There were four forms A, B, C, D each with items. This consisted of one form with two parts and each part had 80 items. The focus was on clinically important aspects of personality. Additional research done over time included the development of secondary or derivative scales from the basic scales.

These scales are known as second-order scores, criterion scores, specification equations, adjustment specification equations and performance equations. Each of these corresponds to a set of weights applied to the primary factors to produce a new score.

A typical example of the value of these additional scales is found in the development of the Clinical Analysis Questionnaire CAQ. These additional scales were developed from factoring items from reliable and valid depression assessment questionnaires. Further examples:. The purpose of the Culture Fair Intelligence Test CFIT is to measure intelligence as free as is possible from cultural bias by focusing only on the fluid intelligence factor.

There are three forms or levels of the CFIT. Scale One is for children up to 8 years of age. Scale Two is for ages older than 8 years, adolescents and adults, while the difficulty level of Scale Three items makes it possible to measure intelligence quotients of and above.

This Edition represents a controlled, natural evolution of the original questionnaire and it offers a significant number of improvements without having changed the structure of the test. Changes made include:. The 16 personality factors identified by Dr Cattell more than 50 years ago are still measured by the Fifth Edition and the letters for every factor scale are still used. Composite scores for creativity, adjustment and numerous other criterion-related scales are also available.

The items comprise 16 primary personality factor scales and the Impression Management IM scale. Each scale contains items. It has a USA 5 t h grade reading level and usually takes 35 — 50 minutes to complete. Combined gender norms plus separate male and female norms are available See Part 3 in this manual for statistical information; see Conn and Rieke for a full exposition of the development and technical information.

European and New. French European. Spanish Castilian. Spanish American. The following should be available soon:. Software reports:. For general applications and researchers:. Data Summary Report. Basic Score Report. Basic Interpretive.

Report BIR. For counsellors and clinicians:. OPPs online reports:. For consultants, human resource professionals and vocational counsellors:. IPAT was established in to develop and supply assessment instruments, books and interpretive services to the behavioural science profession. Since then, it has become one of the most widely respected and well- documented behavioural assessment instruments in the world. They maintained an active, ongoing and modern programme of test development, re-.

They have over the years maintained their commitment to fundamental research but added to the latest technical developments to aid in assessment and interpretation. Their head office was in the USA. PAN was founded in by two clinical psychologists, who saw a need for a company that could compile various web-enabled assessments onto one platform. Since then they have continued to pursue their goal of bringing only the best assessments to the market using industry-leading technology.

JvR as the regional representative of PAN is responsible for:. It is designed to be administered to adults 16 years and older , individually or in a group setting. Note the following:. They are grouped at the end of the test booklet to enable separate assessment of reasoning ability from that of personality. Average test completion time is 35 to 50 minutes.


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