In continuation of search for potent natural anti-inflammatory agents, the present research work was planned to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethanol extract of S. Using pharmacological screening models carrageenan induced rat paw edema, histamine induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet granuloma in rats. Present results support the traditional use of plant for anti-inflammatory activity. In brief, the results provide scientific pharmacological basis for the therapeutic use of S. Disease, decay and death have always co-existed with life, study of diseases and their treatment must also have been contemporaneous with the dawn of the human intellect. Some are available as over the counter drugs.
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Solanum xanthocarpum Solanaceae has been used for treatment of many infectious and degenerative diseases in traditional medicine. Present study reports the medicinal efficacy of S.
Extracts were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus and partially characterized by thin layer chromatography TLC. Total flavonoid content was determined spectrophotometrically.
Reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays were used for measurement of antioxidant potential. TLC revealed the diversity of phytoconstituents in various sequential extracts of S. Total flavonoid contents in extracts ranged between Several sub-fractions spots of extracts separated on TLC plates also exhibited powerful radical scavenging activity. Considerable reducing power was observed in extracts. The study demonstrated considerable antioxidant and anticancer activities in S.
Human body has several enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms to combat oxidative stress. Antioxidants derived from plants are presumed to be safe since they are natural in origin and have capability to counteract the damaging effect of reactive oxygen species ROS [ 2 ].
Phenolics are a group of naturally occurring compounds having functional hydroxyl groups. They have been reported to possess antioxidant and antiviral activities [ 3 ]. Free radical scavenging and inhibition of lipid peroxidation are two such mechanisms by virtue of which phenolics may combat the deleterious effect of ROS [ 4 , 5 ].
Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance which has been observed in various cancer cells. Polyphenols have been shown to inhibit the cancer associated enzyme telomerase, cell cycle and induce apoptosis [ 6 ]. Many important anticancer drugs are derived from plant sources, e. Compounds having low side effects, inducing apoptosis and target specific cytotoxicity to the cancer cells are drugs of choice [ 8 ].
Inhibitors bind with the active or allosteric site of HIV RT based on their chemical nature whether they are analogs of nucleoside or non-nucleoside, respectively. This interaction may significantly reduce morbidity and mortality of HIV infected patients [ 9 ].
Several anti-HIV phytoconstituents of plant origin are known which include drymaritin an alkaloid , diandraflavone, torosaflavone A, and cis-p-coumarate derived from a weed Drymaria diandra [ 10 ]. Phytoconstituents present in natural food items especially in edible fruits have been found to possess various pharmacological activities for example proanthocyanidin extracts of Vitis vinifera Vitaceae and ethanolic fraction of Litchi chinensis Sapindaceae fruits have been reported to exhibit potential antioxidant, anti carcinogenic and antiviral activities [ 11 , 12 ].
Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. In vernacular it is known as Kantakari or Bhatkatiya. Fruits are berry, yellow or with white green strips, surrounded by enlarged calyx. Fruits are edible and local people of Manipur India use it as folk medicine for treatment of various ailments.
In Kerala, the Kattunaikka, Paniya and Kuruma tribes of Wayanad district consume fruits and seeds as food [ 14 ]. Fruits are considered as a valuable herbal product for traditional healers in treatment of many common diseases in other parts of India.
In Ayurveda, medicinal use of Sx is well documented. Phytoconstituents present in Sx are used as anti-fertility, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic agents and as potential fungicide [ 15 , 16 ]. Present manuscript reports the in vitro antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-HIV activities of various polar and non-polar extracts of S. The fruits were shade-dried at room temperature and ground into fine powder. Powdered sample was sequentially extracted with different solvents i.
The extract was centrifuged, filtered and dried under reduced pressure. The residues were dissolved in DMSO for assessment of biochemical activities of extracts. The extracts were dissolved in respective solvents and spots were applied with the help of fine capillary tubes. Chloroform-ethyl acetate-formic acid was used as the solvent system [ 19 ].
Water soluble phenolic contents were further identified as bluish bands after spraying with folin ciocalteau reagent FCR in water. The radical scavenging assay was performed by the method of Cavin et al. The plate was sprayed with 0. The bands having free radical scavenging capability were identified as yellow spots against a purple background and Rf value was calculated.
Aluminum chloride colorimetric method of Chang et al. Small amount 0. The reducing power was determined by the method of Oyaizu [ 22 ] with slight modifications [ 3 ]. To each tube 2. The reaction was stopped by adding 2. Butylated hydroxytoluene BHT was used as positive control for comparison.
The free radical scavenging activity was measured by DPPH assay [ 23 ] as modified by us [ 2 ]. The modification included dissolution of extracts in DMSO instead of methanol.
Three milliliter of 0. The method described by Halliwell and Gutteridge [ 24 ] was followed to determine the amount of malondialdehyde MDA formation with slight modifications [ 25 ]. The tubes were cooled and centrifuged. The percentage inhibitory activity of RT inhibitors extracts was calculated by comparing with a sample that did not contain an inhibitor using following formula:.
The in vitro cytotoxicity of fruit extracts was determined using sulforhodamine-B SRB assay [ 27 ]. Suitable blanks and positive controls were also included. The plots were prepared using Microsoft excel and Graph pad Prism software.
Number of spots Rf 0. Many non-polar fractions exhibited bands having similar mobility Rf 0. Thin layer chromatogram of S. Numbers 1—7 indicate hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethyl alcohol and water extracts, respectively.
Total flavonoid content in S. Spectroscopic scanning data of water soluble phenolic spots obtained from thin layer chromatogram of S. The yield of S. EA extract accounted for maximum flavonoid content The reducing power of potential Sx fruit extracts was comparable to the activity shown by BHT.
Antioxidant capacity assessment of S. Standard antioxidant compounds Std were used as control for comparison. Sx fruit extracts were monitored for anti-RT activity at different concentrations 0. Non polar extracts showed dose dependent inhibitory activity. Nevirapine, the standard anti-HIV drug not shown in figure demonstrated Anti-HIV and cytotoxic activity of S. Polar extracts in general displayed lower cytotoxic activity. Plants are natural repositories of molecules with diverse structure and function.
Many phytoconstituents exhibit nutritive and pharmacological activities [ 28 - 30 ]. In the current study compounds present in sequential extracts of S.
AC fraction showed maximum variability of phyto-constituents as indicated by number of spots. A single wavelength is not enough to study mixture of phenolic compounds because different polyphenols show absorption at specific wave lengths.
Chemically flavonoids are diphenylpropanes and more than flavonoids have been isolated from plants [ 33 ].
Many biological activities such as lipoprotective, anti platelet, and anti inflammatory are related to the anti-oxidative effects of flavonoids [ 16 ]. The mechanism behind antioxidant property of flavonoids includes radical scavenging, reducing ability, metal ion chelation and inhibition of enzymatic systems responsible for free radical generation [ 33 ].
Violet colour of DPPH, the commercially available stable free radical, is reduced to a pale yellow colour due to the abstraction of hydrogen atom from antioxidant compound. The intensity of the yellow colour depends on the quantity and the nature of the compounds present at that location [ 20 ].
Our findings are corroborated by the reports on other plants that DPPH radical scavenging activity of extracts is mediated by their hydrogen donating ability [ 34 , 35 ].
Both the assays i. Prasad et al. Correlation of flavonoids with in vitro biochemical activities. Reducing power of plant extracts is generally associated with the presence of reductones, which exert antioxidant action by breaking the free radical chain through donating a hydrogen atom [ 37 ].
Since both the properties are due to hydrogen donating ability of the test sample it might be concluded that in addition to flavonoids there are other phytochemical moieties responsible for the antioxidant potential of S. Redox chemistry of iron plays an important role in the occurrence and the rate of lipid peroxidation.
Phenolics have been shown to delay or prevent the progression of various diseases by averting peroxidation of membrane lipids [ 8 , 35 ]. However lower activity was observed against lung cancer cell line HOP This may be attributed to the fact that different cell lines might exhibit different sensitivities to cytotoxic agents [ 42 ].
Similar relationship between flavonoids and cytotoxic activities has also been reported in other studies [ 43 ].
Flavonoids acting as antioxidants have been reported to inhibit carcinogenesis. The position, number, and substitution of the hydroxyl of the rings in flavonoid may be important factors affecting their cytotoxic activities [ 33 ]. Some of the flavonoids such as apigenin, fisetin, quercetin and luteolin are known to be potent inhibitors of cancer cell proliferation [ 7 , 39 , 44 ]. There are several mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of flavonoids, including the inhibition of topoisomerases and kinases [ 33 ].
Natural products have been shown to inhibit various stages of the replication cycle of the HIV [ 45 ].
In the present study, HPTLC is used to detect the presence and amount of triterpenoids and phytosterols in different plant parts fruit, stem, leaf, and root of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. Each plant part has its own medicinal value and is used as Siddha medicinal herb. The employed statistical analysis ensures that the developed method is reproducible and selective. The results show that the fruit samples contain highest amount of tested phytochemicals. This method can be used as an important tool to ensure the therapeutic dose in herbal formulations, standardization, and quality control of bulk drugs.
Solanum virginianum , also called Surattense nightshade ,  yellow-fruit nightshade , yellow-berried nightshade , Thai green eggplant , Thai striped eggplant from the unripe fruit ,  is also known as Indian night shade or yellow berried night shade plant, the common name is Kantakari, Solanumsurattense Brum. Sharma et al. Some part of the plant is poisonous ex. Leaves are unequal paired; stalk [a] 2—3.